Like the process for an application considered by the local Council, you can make your opinions heard in the appeals/call-in process. One difference is that this process is often longer, and can involve more formal channels for getting involved.
After the decision - application refused
If a developer appeals a decision that goes against it, the application will move for consideration to a higher level of government. In England and Wales, it will be considered by the Planning Inspectorate, an independent government body. In England, the Planning Inspectorate serves the Department of Communities and Local Government, which is the government department that deals with planning. In Wales, it serves the National Assembly for Wales.